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Neo-Patristic Exegesis

A call for a new approach to exegesis Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, in a programmatic article published originally in German in 1989, and subsequently in English and then in Italian, called for “a better synthesis between historical and theological methods, between criticism and dogma” in the exegesis of Sacred Scripture through self-criticism by exegetes of the…

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Plenary Inerrancy of Scripture

Since God is the principal Author of Sacred Scripture, it can contain no error, no self-contradiction, nothing contrary to scientific or historical truth. The Encyclical “Providentissimus Deus” is most explicit in its statement of this prerogative of the Bible: “All the books which the Church receives as sacred and canonical, are written wholly and entirely,…

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The Canon of the New Testament

The formation and preservation of the Canon of the New Testament is certainly due to the direct influence of divine Providence moving second agents to execute the will of God. Still it was not the primary design of Christ to deliver to the world a written code of his doctrines. He inaugurated the great work…

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Defense of the Deuterocanonical Books

Certain individuals have doubted concerning the deuterocanonical works; the Church never doubted. In quoting the book as Scripture, Origen follows the Church. This can be said in general; the Fathers, in their practical use of Scripture, reflect the belief of the Church. If they put forth, at times, speculative doubts, they are then speaking as…

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Division of the Protocanonical and Deuterocanonical Books

The well-known division of both Testaments into the protocanonical and deuterocanonical books seems to have first been employed by Sixtus Sennensis (1520—1569). In his Bibliotheca Sancta, Book 1. Sec. i, he writes thus: “Thus Canonical books of the first order we may call protocanonical; the Canonical books of the second order were formerly called ecclesiastical,…

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The Canon of the Church

There is no trace in writing or tradition of any formal decision rendered by Jesus Christ or his Apostles concerning the Canon of the Old Testament. However, their use of the Alexandrian text of Scripture is equivalent to an express decree. It were incompatible with the character of the teachers of mankind and organizers of…

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Canon of the Old Testament

The Greek kanon means primarily a reed, or measuring-rod: by a natural figure it was employed by ancient writers both profane and religious to denote a rule or standard. We find the substantive first applied to the Sacred Scriptures in the fourth century, by St. Athanasius; for its derivatives, the Council of Laodicea of the…

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